Jan Saenredam, Two Dutch Peasants Taking Butter and Produce to Market. Holland, c. 1615. FM: PDP, 24.I.1-65 © Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge.

Not all goods were exchanged for money. In this engraving, showing peasants at a Dutch country market, a man and a woman are in the process of bartering one kind of produce for another. The caption reads: ‘This is the way in which Dutch peasants exhibit goods for sale, and store butter using a rustic container’.